Author Archives: RL

About RL

I think, therefore I am ...... I think?

Preface

This is the website of Falklands Wars – the History of the Falkland Islands. A blow-by-blow account of events in the Falkland Islands and the South Atlantic from the year 1480.

In 2008 I read a news article which made no sense to me. It was about Argentine claims to the Falkland islands and the reason that it made no sense was that I remembered a war in 1982; a war fought over those islands. A war that Britain won. So why, all those years later, was Argentina still making claims? It quickly became obvious that my knowledge of what had caused the war was scant; so finding myself with some time on my hands I began a little research. A decade later, this is the result.

People ask why I have not published in the traditional sense but a book would just be too large and unwieldy. It would also be expensive to buy. I prefer this medium because, firstly, it’s free. I believe that information should be free wherever possible. That way more people get to learn. Secondly, this format is relatively easily searched, so those interested in just one period or one subject can dig out what they are looking for. Thirdly, the words can be pasted into translators so that those with little or no English may also find what they wish. And finally, this way allows me to reach a potential audience in the hundreds of thousands although I doubt more than a few will attempt to read it all. My primary purpose is the dissemination of the history of the Falklands as it can be discovered in the words of those who were there; the people that played a part – their journals, notes, letters, speeches, reports and memos. Also from the views of those that have commented over the centuries – journalists, politicians, diplomats, academics, lawyers and historians. To claim to be among that group would be pompous and untrue but I am good at digging, sifting and uncovering. An old-fashioned Copper; a terrier.

I hope the result is of use but please excuse the typos – my eyes grow dim and my hands unsteady.

Roger Lorton

Now, allow me to introduce a few of the characters.

1480 – 1762 Discovery

From Pope Sixtus IV to Lord Anson, via Cristoforo Colombo, Pope Alexander VI, Tordesillas, Americus Vespucius, Magellan, Carmargo, Francis Drake, John Davis, Richard Hawkins, Sebald de Weerdt, Narborough, Anthony de la Roche, Dampier, Cook & Cowley, John Strong, Woodes Rogers, Amédée-François Frézier, Pellón, Wall, José de Carvajal, Keene, and Anson

1763 – 1766 Establishment

From Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, via Arriaga, Malouines, Earl Egmont, John Byron, Choiseul, Grimaldi, Lord Rochford, Manila Ransom, Masserano, and John MacBride 

Falkland_islands_250m 21767 – 1774 Spain

From Earl Shelburn, via Wallis & Carteret, Bucarelli, Harris, Puente, Hunt & Farmer, Carrington Bowles, Juan Ignacio Madariaga, Rubalcava, Lord Weymouth, Lord North and Clayton

1775 – 1815 Whalers & Sealers

From Cook to Carlos Alvear, via Francis Rotch, Samuel Enderby, Lopez, Gil y Lemos, Pedro de Cevallos, Galvez, Vértiz, Juan Pascual Callejas, Edgar, Portlock & Dixon, Delano, John Loveday, Lord Hawkesbury, Nootka Sound, Board of Trade, Floridablanca, Lord Leeds, Fitzherbert, Pitt, Alejandro Malaspina, Otto, Cornwallis, Bordas, Francisco Javier de Elio, Paul Guillén Martinez and Artigas

1816 – 1829 Claims

From Rivadavia to Rosas, via San Martin, Quintana, John Quincy Adams, Rodney, Bland & Graham, Lynch, David Jewett, Forbes, Weddell, Orne, Powell & Palmer, Mason, Luis Vernet, Pacheco, Woodbine Parish, Canning, Rodríguez, Schofield, Monroe Doctrine, Areguati, Andrew Low, Griffiths & Pousett, Emilio Vernet, Nuñez, Lord Ponsonby, Langdon, Lavalle, Lord Aberdeen, Jenner and Wellington

Queens Certificate & Badge of Honour

1830 – 1833 Counter Claims

From Luis Vernet to Rivero, via Matthew Brisbane, Van Burren, Davison, Carew & Congar, Smyley, Fox, Metcalf, Slacum, Belcarce, USS Lexington, Silas Duncan, Van Ness, Francis Baylies, Livingstone, Dickson, Garcia, Lord Palmerston, Rodgers, Bankhead, Jenner, Maza, Baker, José María Pinedo, Mestivier, John James Onslow, Belford Hinton Wilson, Fitzroy, Darwin, Gore and Manuel Moreno

1834 – 1852 Colonization

From Palmerston to Juan Rosas, via Smith, Titus Coan, Van Ness, Antonio Rivero, Fitzroy, George Whitington, William Low, Vernet, Moreno, Hamond, Lavalleja, Grey, Lafone, Lowcay, John Mandeville, Sullivan, Alvear, Forsyth, Arana, Smyth, Antonina Kenny, Robinson, Lord John Russell, Tyssen, John Bull Whitington, Webster, Richard Moody, Lord Aberdeen, Ross, Lord Stanley, Watterson, Hood, George Rennie and Henry Southern

1853 – 1899 Consolidation

From Rennie to Goldsworthy, via Clift, Marcy, Eldridge, Smyley, Lynch, Bernsée, Lord Clarendon, Sir George Grey, Crampton, Thomas Laws Moore, Parry, Luis Vernet, Harrowby, Labouchere, Earl Carnarvon, Moore, Bartolomé Mitre, Admiral Pinzón, Sarmiento, D’Arcy, Callaghan, Vernet’s heirs, Kerr, Latzina, Francisco Ortiz, Dominguez, Roca, Monson, Granville, Bayard, Vicente Quesada, Packenham and Costa

South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands1900 – 1959 Pin Pricks & Antarctic Pretensions

From Larsen to Perón, via William Spiers Bruce, Haggard, Allardyce, Swinhoe, Hodges, Churchill, Townley, Gaston de Bernhardt, Maximilian von Spee, Sturdee, Young, Letters Patent, League of Nations, Pueyrredon, Middleton, Ernest Shackleton, Hodson, Robertson, Dr. Sagarna, Fitzmaurice, O’Grady, Palacios, Henniker-Heaton, Eden, Henderson, Malbran, Dodd, Cardinall, Operation Tabarin, Clifford, Videla, Bevin, Bramuglia, Arthur and Arrowsmith

1960 – 1971 Decolonization & Rights

From Khrushchev to Scott, via Arturo Illia, Haskard, José María Ruda, King, Velazquez, Caradon, Garcia del Solar, Ortiz, Stewart, Hohler, George Brown, Creswell, Lord Caradon, Nicanor Costa Méndez, Barton, Goss, Miller & Bonner, Lord Chalfont, McLoughlin, Beith, Goronwy Roberts, Pitaluga, Lewis and Beltramino

1972 – 1982 Negotiation

From Lewis to Hunt, via Campora, Perón Vignes, Alec Douglas-Home, Anchorena, Callaghan, Carless, Ennals, Ashe, Robledo, Castex, Lord Shackleton, French, Judge Dillard, Quijano, Edward Rowlands, Videla, Guzzetti, Massera, Allara, Crosland, Gott, Owen, Montes, Bill Hunter Christie, Davidoff, Margaret Thatcher, Ure, Ridley, Carrington, Cavándoli, Parker, Pastor, Amery, Adrian Monk, Ros, Camilion, Anaya, Williams, Costa Mendez, Luce, Shlaudeman, Sir Henry Leach and Galtieri

74 days in 1982 Trial by CombatOption 2

From Galtieri to Thatcher, via Hunt, Busssers, Garcia, Mario Menendez, Allara, Haig, Reagan, Lewin, Parsons, Nott, Jeanne Kirkpatrick, Henderson, Mills, Noot, Pym, Vernon Walters, Méndez, Anaya, Dozo, Pérez de Cuéllar, Henderson, Takacs, Rouco, Alfredo Astiz, McFarlane, Belgrano, Piaggi, Lombardo, Belaunde, Weinberger, Ahmed, Ros, Stoessel, Turbay, Pope John Paul II, Dorr, Lord Shackleton, Mitterand, Hussey, Rose, Carlos Bloomer-Reeve and Moore

1982 – 1990 Reconstruction

From Thatcher to Major, via Menendez, Hunt, Parsons, Galtieri, Kirkpatrick, Pym, Thorne, Listre, Pérez de Cuéllar, Stoessel, Bignone, Lord Franks, Haig, Aguirre Lanari, Enders, John Cheek & Anthony Blake, Abdulah, Shultz, Reagan, Thompson, Lord Shackleton, Raúl Alfonsín, Sábato, Caputo, Howe, Jewkes, Renton, Foulkes, Lord Trefgarne, Tickell, Menem and John Major

1991 – 2011 Pin Pricks Renewed

From Menem to Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, via Thatcher, Tatham, Douglas Hurd, Guido di Tella, Menem, Pfirter, Judge Vereshchetin, Goss & Edwards, Betts, Dominguez, Halford, Tony Blair, Sukey Cameron, Cisneros, Jan Cheek, Cook, Hoon, Judge Torres Bernárdez, Cockwell & Birmingham, Dulhalde, Straw, Prince Andrew, Nestor Kirchner, Summers, Bonzo, Joe Bossano, Brown, Cameron, Haywood, Lyall Grant, Short, Sawle, Mujica, Argüello and Puricelli

2012 – 2017 Referenda & Repetition

From Hague to May, via Prince William, Timerman, Kirchner, Short, Edwards & Summers, Lidington, David Cameron, Almagro, Lyall Grant, Sawle, Fabian Picardo, Jaime Trobo, Filmus, Duncan, Alicia Castro, Top Gear, Marcelo Kohen, Escude, Fallon, Hammond, Mauricio Macri, Malcorra, Alan Duncan, Pinedo, Hansen, Carreño, Boris Johnson and Mario Diaz-Balart

I hope the work is of some use.

Roger Lorton

 

 

About the Author.

Roger Lorton received a Secondary Modern education before leaving school in 1971 at the age of 16 and joining his local Police Force. In his 30s, he attended University part-time gaining an LL.B (Hon) and M.Phil before adding a Cert.Ed and teaching in Police Colleges for ten w9aMHKI7_400x400years. Roger is the author of the Stationary Office series the A-Z of Policing Law, A-Z of Countryside Law and A-Z of Neighbourhood Law. Retiring in 2004, Roger became interested in the history of the Falkland Islands and started the research leading to Falkland Wars: the history of the Falkland Islands. In 2016 the author was honoured to be awarded the Queen’s Certificate & Badge of Honour by the Falklands’ people for this research.