The Falkland Islands – History & Timeline

Falkland Wars 1480 – now!

1900 – 1944 Antarctic Pretensions

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1900 – January 9th, William Harding is appointed Consul of Chile in Stanley.

June 14th, Harding adds the Consulate of Italy to his portfolio.

July 29th, Ckarles McLeod is shot dead by Joseph Jenkins in a dispute over racial taunts.

October 2nd, a ‘Mining and General Lease of South Georgia’ is advertised in the Falkland Islands Gazette.

1901 – a population census identifies 2,043 people present on the Islands.

April 4th, Hugo Schlottfeldt is appointed Consul of Germany in the Falklands.

The Stanley Comet newspaper is established.

1902 – March 27th, Carl Anton Larsen arrives in the Falkland Islands as captain of the Antarctic, with the Swedish South Polar Expedition.

April 22nd, the Expedition arrives at South Georgia.

May 14th, Larsen takes the Antarctic into a sheltered cove in Cumberland East Bay which they name Grytviken.

May 28th, Chile and Argentina sign the Pacto de Mayo which appoints Britain’s monarch as arbiter in their boundary disputes.

1903 – January 6th, the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, led by Dr. William Spiers Bruce, arrives off the Falkland Islands in Scotia, where they remain until the 26th, when they sail for the South Orkney Islands.

February 12th, Antarctic is crushed by sea ice.

March 26th, the Scottish Expedition arrives at Laurie Island where a pre-fabricated meteorological station is constructed – called ‘Ormond House.’

Richard Lion, a British resident of Punta Arenas in Chile, applies for a pastoral lease for a sheep and cattle farm on South Georgia.

December 2nd, the Scottish Expedition return to Port Stanley.

December 8th, leaving the other members of the Expedition to return to Laurie Island, Dr. Bruce sails for Buenos Aires aboard the Orissa.

December 25th, Clarence S. Bement, with its cargo of coal on fire, is wrecked off Fox Bay.

December 29th, in Buenos Aires, Minister Haggard, is asked by Bruce to negotiate with Argentina for the upkeep of the Laurie Island meteorological station.

The plans Mr. Bruce had cherished of making at Ormond House, South Orkneys, a permanent meteorological station were now happily fulfilled. The Argentine Government, through its Meteorological Office, agreed to undertake the upkeep of the station for the following year if we would give a passage to the men and stores… Mr. W. H. Haggard, C.B., the British Minister, .. gave all his weighty influence to the furtherance of the project.”

The object of these conversations, in which Dr. Bruce took the initiative, was to arrange for the establishment of a permanent meteorological observatory on Laurie Island. As a result of the enthusiastic support of Mr. Walter G. Davis, the head of the Argentine Meteorological Service, it was agreed that the Argentine Government should take over the maintenance and staffing of the observatory, and that the Scottish Expedition would be responsible for transporting the observers and training them..”

Argentina was left in no doubt by Great Britain that the transfer to the Argentine Meteorological Office, of the meteorological station previously established on Laurie Island in the South Orkneys by a British expedition, did not also involve the transfer to Argentina of the sovereignty either of the South Orkneys group or of Laurie Island itself.” (ICJ 1956)

1904 – January 2nd, under Argentine Decree No. 3073 the Oficina Meteorologica Argentina is authorised to maintain the station on Laurie Island.

January 21st, three Argentine scientists sail to the Falkland Islands en-route to the Ormond House meteorological station in the South Orkneys – L. H. Valette, H. Acuna and E. Szmula.

February 22nd,  ‘Ormond House’ is handed over to the Argentine scientists although a Scot, Robert Cockburn Mossman, remains at the base to supervise their work. They are supported by one of the Scotia’s crew, William Smith, who acts as cook and general assistant.

Often, among the various topics brought forward in the cabin in the long winter evenings, arose the question of the ownership of the South Orkneys. And after many long discussions we arrived at the pleasing conclusion that even in this age of imperialism the South Orkneys has escaped the grasp of any country, and that we enjoyed the privilege of living in No-man’s Land. But I fear it is no longer so. Not that we claimed them for Britain, –  for even if we had been seized with desire to widen the confines of our empire, we could not lay claim to new territory in our country’s name without having a Government mandate, – and as for claiming them for Scotland, I fear that still less would have been recognised, though in Mossman they certainly had a Scotsman for their first governor. However, when the Scotia returned to the island in February 1904, with an Argentine staff to take over the meteorological observatory at Ormond House under the auspices of the Argentine Government, the Argentine naval flag was hoisted on the cairn where formerly the Scottish Lion flew; and I presume the South Orkneys are looked upon as a possession of that power; – the nucleus of an empire, perhaps, they may even seem to ambitious Argentine expansionists.”

South GeorgiaFebruary 29th, in Buenos Aires, a new whaling company – Compañía Argentina de Pesca, is registered in the names of P. Christopherson, the Norwegian Consul; E. Tornquist, a banker, and H Schlieper, a businessman. Carl Larsen is appointed as manager.

March 16th, William Harding is gazetted as Consul for Germany.

May 28th, Sir William Lamond Allardyce is appointed Governor of the Falklands.

June 6th, n deciding a dispute between British Guiana and Brazil, the arbitration panel overseen by the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel notes; “That the discovery of new channels of trade in regions not belonging to any State cannot by itself be held to confer an effective right to the acquisition of the sovereignty of the said regions by the State whose subjects the persons who in the private capacity make the discovery may happen to be;

That to acquire the sovereignty of regions which are not in the dominion of any State, it is indispensable that the occupation be effected in the name of the State which intends to acquire the sovereignty of those regions;

That the occupation cannot be held to be carried out except by effective, uninterrupted, and permanent possession being taken in the name of the State, and that a simple affirmation of rights of sovereignty or a manifest intention to render the occupation effective cannot suffice;

That the effective possession of part of a region, although it may be held to confer a right to the acquisition of the sovereignty of the whole of a region which constitutes a single organic whole, cannot confer a right to the acquisition of the whole region which, either owing to its size or to its physical configuration, cannot be deemed to be a single organic whole de facto; ..”

June 13th, the Falkland Islands Government introduce a customs duty of 10 shillings on seal skins.

November 16th, Larsen arrives at South Georgia with 3 ships, Louise, Rolf and Fortuna, together with enough material to build a factory.

December 25th, the Grytviken whaling station produces its first oil.

December 31st, an Argentine gunboat, Uruguay, reaches the base on Laurie Island to relieve the staff there.

1905 – in January, Carl Larsen founds a meteorological station on South Georgia, with equipment provided by Servicio Meteorological Nacional of Argentina.

In February, the last member of the Scottish Expedition leaves Laurie Island.Regiones_militares_arg_1905

Argentina publishes a map of its military regions. The Falkland Islands are not shown.

In March, the first cargo of whale oil from Grytviken arrives in Buenos Aires, where Argentine customs tax it as an import.

March 20th, Richard Lion, visits the Falkland Islands to recruit shepherds for South Georgia.

In July, Ernest Swinhoe, manager of the South Georgia Exploration Company, arrives at Port Stanley in the Consort. He negotiates a lease for South Georgia for £1 per year – stating that the objectives of the company are farming, seal hunting and mineral exploration.

July 27th, a Danish barque, Sixtus, is wrecked at Volunteer Rocks.

August 9th, at South Georgia, Ernest Swinhoe lands 24 sheep and 4 horses at King Edward Cove before setting out to explore the area of his lease.

August 14th, Swinhoe discovers Larsen’s whaling factory at Grytviken. Larsen is absent, so Swinhoe challenges the acting-manager – providing letter of complaint accompanied by a copy of the lease held by the South Georgia Exploration Company.

September 19th, the Kirkhill is wrecked on Wolf Rock.

September 28th, Swinhoe sends a written complaint to Larsen protesting the presence of an unlicensed whaling operation within the lease area held by his company.

In October, Ernest Swinhoe abandons South Georgia having found no seals, and finding little prospect of profitable sheep farming. Swinhoe returns to Stanley to inform the Governor of his conclusions and of the existence of the whaling station at Grytviken.

November 2nd, in Buenos Aires, Pedro Christophersen, President of the Compañía Argentina de Pesca, and Guillermo Núñez, a principle shareholder, visit the British Legation.

They produced the letter from Swinhoe and claimed to be unaware of British sovereignty over South Georgia. They also raised the matter of Compañía Argentina de Pesca applying for a lease for the site of the whaling station, through the British Legation. A report was despatched to the Governor of the Falkland Islands, Mr. W. L. Allardyce. This he received shortly before Consort reached the Falkland Islands from South Georgia.” (Headland 1992)

On receipt of the information from the British Legation, together with Swinhoe’s report, Governor Allardyce requests HMS Sappho to investigate the unlicensed whaling operation at South Georgia.  He also reports the matter to the Colonial Office in London.

December 24th, two whalers and a factory ship, Admiralen, arrive off New Island with a licence from the Governor to catch whales. The factory ship anchors for a month before moving off with 40 whales to process.

HMS Sappho sails from Montevideo.

1906 – January 1st,the Compañía Argentina de Pesca is granted a 21 year lease for a 500 acre plot with a licence for whaling at a cost of £250, per annum. [This may have been ‘back-dated.’]

The lease of South Georgia held by the South Georgia Exploration Company was renewed, with somewhat different terms, in 1906.”

January 31st, HMS Sappho arrives at Grytviken.

February 1st, Capt. Hodges RN inspects the whaling station, escorted by Carl Larsen.

grytvikenDiscussion certainly took place between Captain Hodges and Larsen concerning the licensing of  Compañía Argentina de Pesca’s whaling station, which was then being arranged through the British Legation in Buenos Aires and the Government at Stanley. Some conflicting accounts describe this as difficult. These suggest that there was either a Norwegian or Argentine flag flying over Grytviken to which Hodges objected, that Hodges gave Larsen a time (said to be either 15 or 30 minutes) to remove the flag before Sappho’s guns, trained on the flag pole, would open fire to the same effect, and that Larsen lowered the offending flag. Neither the official account prepared by Captain  Hodges nor the Norwegian histories refer to this and no supporting contemporary reports include it. …  All other accounts indicate that relations between Captains Hodges and Larsen were amicable and cooperative.”

June 20th, Cassard, a French steel barque built in 1899, is wrecked on Driftwood Point, Bleaker Island.

June 29th, the hulk of the Cassard is sold at public auction for £355. Her cargo of wheat is purchased for £20.

August 22nd, Britain’s Minister to Argentina is instructed to affirm sovereignty over the South Orkneys.

In 1906 .. when the Argentine Government, who had taken over charge of the Meteorological Station on the South Orkneys, with the express sanction of His Majesty’s Government, were disposed to base on this permissive occupation a claim of sovereignty, it was found necessary to instruct His Majesty’s Minister at Buenos Ayres to inform them categorically that the group in question was British Territory.” (Bernhardt 1911)

November 10th, the Norwegian whaler, Fridtjof Nansen, is wrecked off South Georgia; as is the Lyn belonging to the Compañía Argentina de Pesca.

A series of Royal Navy Hydrographic charts for South Georgia are published.

In the Falklands, Ordinance 3, restricts whaling around the Dependencies and subjects whalers to the requirements of a licence issued by the Governor. Licences costs £25 and a royalty is payable on each beast killed.

1907 – in January, a formal diplomatic Note is presented to Argentina’s Foreign Ministry emphasising that the South Orkney’s are a British possession; “.. in order to remove any possible misconception as to the legal basis on which operation of the meteorological station on Laurie Island in the South Orkneys had been transferred to the Argentine Meteorological Office..”

At the Haig, the powers of the Permanent Court of Arbitration are extended by the 2ndPeace Conference with the purpose of; “… obviating as far as possible recourse to force in the relations between States,…” Proposals promoted by Uruguay to create a compulsory arbitration service are defeated, while the options available in voluntary cases are increased. Both Chile and Argentina are signatories; as is the UK. As a result, Chile submits a proposal to Argentina that they negotiate an agreement as to a division of sovereignty over South Georgia, the South Sandwich Islands, the South Shetlands and the Antarctic lands, within the spirit of the Treaty of 1881.

Argentina’s Foreign Minister, Estanislao Zeballos, responds; Chile ought to know that England claimed all these lands.”

A Chilean company, the Sociedad Ballenera de Magallanes of Punta Arenas, takes out a British whaling licence for the South Shetlands and Graham Land.

November 23rd, the sealing schooner, Baden Powell, is wrecked on Elephant Jason.

December 12th, Joachim Peterson arrives as the commissioned policeman, on South Georgia.

1908 Messrs. Salvesen & Co of Leith, Scotland, obtain a lease for a whaling station on New Island, which is to employ 80 men.

Ordinance 3, is replaced by Ordinance 5, under which whaling licences may renewed but no new ones are granted. The killing of calves and females is prohibited

HMS Sappho visits Stanley. HMS_Sappho

February 5th, the Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, Mr. Churchill, informs Parliament; The proceeds of the sale of land in the Falkland Islands are invested separately, and form a capital asset of the Colony. The average receipts of the Sale of Lands Fund amounted to about £5,000 a year for the five years 1902–1906, the highest amount in any one year being £12,783.”

In Buenos Aires, Italy’s Minister – in a communication regarding the Rome Postal Union Convention – includes the Falkland Islands among those British Colonies which had adhered to that Convention in respect to registered letters. Argentina’s Minister for Foreign Affairs promptly protests.

February 24th, in response to a question in the Commons, on whether there has been any recent contact with the Argentine Government about the Falkland Islands, Mr. Runciman confirms, There has been no recent correspondence on the subject of the Falkland Islands.”

February 26th, the MP for Lanarkshire NW asks; “I beg to ask the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, whether he has any official information showing that the Government of the Argentine Republic has intimated a claim to jurisdiction in the Falkland Archipelago; and whether he is in a position to make any statement regarding this.”

The response is: “If the hon. Member will let my right hon. friend know to what he refers in particular, my right hon. friend will endeavour to give what information he has.”

April 1st, Helene Blum is wrecked on Seal Rock, Cape Pembroke.

July 21st, in London, Letters Patent are issued with regard to the constitutional arrangements of its possessions in the South Atlantic; “Whereas the group of islands known as South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, and the Sandwich Islands, and the territory known as Graham’s Land, situated in the South Atlantic Ocean to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude, and lying between the 20th and the 80th degrees of west longitude, are part of our Dominions, and it is expedient that provision should be made for their government as Dependencies of our Colony of the Falklands; 1. Now We do  hereby declare that from and after the publication of these our Letters Patent in the Government “Gazette” of our Colony of the Falkland Islands the said group of islands known as South Georgia, the South Orkneys,  the South Shetlands, and the Sandwich Islands, and the said territory of Graham’s Land shall become Dependencies of our said Colony of the Falkland Islands.”

In the period between their discovery and the issue of Letters Patent in 1908, no foreign national put forward a claim on behalf of his country to any part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies. Although numerous foreign expeditions, scientific, commercial and naval, visited the area during this period, none of them thought fit to challenge British sovereignty in any way whatsoever. It may therefore be fairly assumed that British sovereignty received tacit recognition from all the important maritime powers during the nineteenth century.” [Hunter-Christie 1951]

September 1st, the Letters Patent are published in the Falkland Islands Gazette. Argentina requests information.

A South Orkneys Whaling Licence is issued to the Newfoundland Steam Whaling Company by the Governor.

1909 – February 20th, the text of the Letters Patent, as published officially in the Falkland Islands Gazette, is forwarded to Argentina’s Foreign Ministry.

March 18th, Argentina formally acknowledges receipt; “I have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of your Note dated the 20th of February last with which you were good enough to forward a publication called Falkland Islands Gazette containing a Decree by which the ‘South Orkneys’ are declared a dependency of the ‘Falkland Islands.”

… it is to be concluded from the terms of their reply that in 1909 Argentina did not dispute the British title to South Georgia, the South Sandwich Islands, the South Shetlands and Graham Land, which territories were also covered by the communication sent to the Argentine Government, but were not mentioned in the Argentine reply.” [ICJ 1956]

From Buenos Aires, British Minister Walter Townley informs London that the; “Argentine Government do not dispute the rights of Great Britain over the South Orkneys.”

On South Georgia, a new whaling station is established at Leith Harbour under a Falklands Islands Dependencies lease; while another station is established at Ocean Harbour by Lauritz Larsen.

March 22nd, a buoy is positioned to mark Forth Shoal in the entrance to Stanley Harbour.Stanley 1904

July 22nd, the Compañía Argentina de Pesca take on a further lease for Jason Harbour.

November 20th, James Innes Wilson, is appointed Stipendiary Magistrate on South Georgia.

November 30th, following Wilson’s arrives at Grytviken, all economic, scientific and other activities in the territory are regulated according to British law in situ.

December 4th, a post office opens on South Georgia.

December 31st, a census is conducted on South Georgia. 720 people are registered as living there (93% Scandinavian).

1910 –  January 1st, Les îles Malouines: nouvel exposé d’un vieux litige is published by Paul Groussac.

This was a bitterly anti-British and one-sided book which misinterpreted some of the events of 1770 and 1771 – the Spanish seizure and restoration of Port Egmont. Groussac paid minimal attention to the American involvement in the events of 1831 to 1833, which in fact he knew all about. … His book was written before the Vernet papers were donated to the Argentine archives and Groussac makes no mention of them or to Vernet’s pro-British sentiments. Nor did he consult the British State papers.”  (Pepper in Tatham 2008)

January 16th, Carl Anton Larsen applies to become a British citizen.

A South Georgia sealing licence is granted to the Compañía Argentina de Pesca; and South Georgia island is divided into 4 areas for sealing purposes. The Compañía Argentina de Pesca also take out a licence for taking seals on the South Sandwich Islands.

A magistrate is sent to Deception Island for the summer season.

May 9th, Malvina, carrying a cargo of wool, is wrecked on Saunders Island.

The Falkland Islands Government employ a Government Naturalist and a Seal Fishery Officer.

May 25th, Argentina celebrates the centennial of the Primera Junta 1810.

In September, the American Department of the Foreign Office requests a detailed historical study of the Falkland’s dispute. Gaston de Bernhardt, an assistant librarian at the Foreign Office, is tasked with the research.

October 5th, Minister Townley writes to the Foreign Office on the subject of the South Orkneys; “ I would respectfully venture to submit that the disputed ownership of the barren rocks may possibly some day lead to an unpleasant incident. … The possession of the Falkland Islands is always dragged in as to what Argentina will do when she has a large fleet and one hundred and fifty million inhabitants, but reasonable people have given up hope that Great Britain will ever consent to a discussion of this question.”

November 11th, an internal Foreign Office memo mentions the possible cession of the South Orkney Islands.

December 7th, Gaston de Bernhardt submits his study, which he has based upon an exploration of the files at the Foreign Office and the British Museum, but not those at the Royal Archives in Windsor.

December 12th, Gerald Spicer, a clerk at the Foreign Office, minutes that the issue remains unresolved; “For more than 60 years we have refused to discuss the question with the Argentine Gov., but from a perusal of this memo, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the Argentine Govt.’s attitude is not altogether unjustified and that our action has been somewhat high-handed. If the alleged secret understanding between the Spaniards and ourselves could be traced our claims would probably be found to be weaker than they are. … the Argentine Govt. do not regard this question as closed.”

December 24th, responding to the memo of November 11th, Governor Allardyce raises the financial consequences, and that the cession would; “ .. almost certain to be misunderstood in South America, and might hereafter form an unfortunate precedent for other demands, and be used to materially weaken our claim to possessing any territory in these seas.”

1911Larsen introduces reindeer to South Georgia as a food source for the whalers.

March 30th, in a written answer in Parliament regarding the negotiation of arbitration agreements with other nations, Foreign Secretary Edward Grey states; There are thirteen which have been concluded for a period of five years, most of which have been renewed for a further period of five years. In addition to the above, treaties have been signed with the Argentine Republic and Brazil which have not as yet been ratified by the King. All these treaties and agreements apply to the whole of the British Dominions and Possessions.”

A population census identifies 2,272 people present on the Falkland Islands.

In May, the South Georgia Magistrate reports that 5,521 whales have been caught, yielding 150,457 barrels of oil valued at £394,898. Governor Allardyce complains that the revenue to the Falkland Islands’ Government is less than 1% of the value of the catch and recommends an export duty of 3d per barrel be imposed.

June 6th, Bayard is wrecked in Ocean Harbour, South Georgia.

In July, Robert Campbell, an Assistant-Secretary at the Foreign Office, pens a memo; “The only question is: Who did have the best claim when we finally annexed the islands … I think undoubtedly the United Provinces of Buenos Aires . We cannot easily make out a good claim and we have wisely done everything to avoid discussing the subject.”

Camana is scuttled at Husvik Harbour on South Georgia.Husvik Harbour

August 3rd, Great Britain and the USA sign an Arbitration Treaty in a ceremony at the White House.

September 27th, the Foreign Office writes to the Colonial Office; “I am directed by Secretary Sir E. Grey to state that he observes that Mr. Harcourt’s objections to any offer to cede the South Orkneys to the Argentine Government are based mainly upon the assumption that such a step might fail to secure recognition of the British title to the Falkland Islands, and would weaken the British case if His Majesty’s Government were compelled to submit the matter to arbitration under a general treaty. Sir E. Grey does not propose to proceed with general arbitration treaties with any country pending the conclusion of the treaty recently under negotiation with the United States, nor does he propose the conclusion of a treaty with the Argentine Government until the British title to the Falkland Islands has been recognised.”

October 21st, Germany’s Antarctic Expedition in the Deutchland arrives at Grytviken.

1912 – a geological survey of South Georgia is conducted by Davis Ferguson for Christian Salvesen’s, while six Norwegian companies take out Dependencies licences for the South Sandwich Islands.

Aware that the UK is seeking land for an Embassy in Buenos Aires, the Argentine Government offers to exchange a plot it owns for the South Orkney Islands. At Stanley, Governor Allardyce opposes the idea of any such exchange, while the British Government give the idea some consideration.

A seasonal post office is established at Port Foster on Deception Island.

In June, a typhus epidemic hits South Georgia. 9 die at Grytviken.

In September, Magistrate Wilson established his residence at King Edward Point, South Georgia.

September 28th, the ‘Wild Animals and Birds (South Georgia) Ordinance’ comes into effect, offering protection to the reindeer, Upland Goose, and other bird species.

Kristen Loken becomes the first resident clergyman on South Georgia.

An American sealer, the brig Daisy, arrives off South Georgia; “ .. and, to her captain’s indignation, he was forced to take out a licence to hunt sea-elephants.”

November 12th, Oravia is wrecked on Billy Rock. Crew and cargo are saved. Postcards of the wreck are sold.

1913 – March 14th, the crippled iron barque, Lady Elizabeth, limps into Port Stanley, where she is condemned and turned into a coal hulk.

March 22nd, workers at Grytviken and Leith go on strike.

A Customs officer is sent to the South Orkney Islands to supervise observance of the whaling laws.

December 25th, a Lutheran church is consecrated at Grytviken, for the Norwegian sealers working there.

1914 – January, despite the opposition of the Governor, the final text of a draft Treaty to cede the South Orkney Islands, in exchange for a parcel of land in Buenos Aires, is completed; “.. but, on a change of Government in Argentina, the new Government declined on financial grounds to complete the transaction.”

.. this draft treaty provide further evidence of Argentina’s recognition of the British title to the South Orkneys at this time, notwithstanding the presence of the Argentine meteorological station on Laurie Island.” [ICJ 1956]

A football match takes place on South Georgia between a team made up from the companies operating at Grytviken, and a team from A/S Ocean. ‘The team from Grytviken consists of Englishmen, Danes, Swedes and Norwegians and an impressive Irish player in defence. The team from Ocean is made up of nine solid built boys from Larvik and two Swedes.‘ Ocean win 9 goals to 2.

A Whaling Officer is sent to the South Orkney Islands to inspect the licensed whaling vessels operating there.

August 4th, Britain declares war on Germany.

The Falkland Islands donate 3 aircraft to the Royal Flying Corps.

August 15th, the newly completed Panama Canal has its official opening.

Edward Binnie is appointed Magistrate for South Georgia.

November 5th, Sir Ernest Shackleton’s British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition arrives at South Georgia.

December 6th, Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee, commanding the Imperial German Navy anchored at Cape Horn, announces his decision to attack the re-supply station at Stanley.

December 7th, Admiral Sturdee and his squadron arrive off the Falkland Islands.

December 8th, the battle of the Falkland Islands is fought between German and British naval forces.

The victory off the Falklands terminated the first phase of the Naval War by effecting a decisive clearance of the German flag from the oceans of the world….. when Admiral von Spee’s powerful squadron, having been unsuccessfully though gallantly engaged off Coronel, was brought to action and destroyed on 8th December by Sir Doveton Sturdee. Only two small German cruisers and two armed merchantmen remain at large of all their formidable preparations for the attack on our trade routes, and these vessels are at present in hiding…. That is a very remarkable result to have been achieved after only a few months of war. I am sure, if we had been told before the War that such a result would be so soon achieved, and that our losses would be so small, we should not have believed it for a moment.”

The German intention had been to destroy the Wireless Station and to demand the unconditional surrender of the Colony. Failure to surrender would have resulted in a large force being landed and Stanley was to be razed to the ground.” (Tatham 2008)

Ernest Shackleton’s expedition arrives at the South Sandwich Islands.

December 23rd, in Buenos Aires, British Minister Sir Reginald Tower, has a conversation with Argentina’s Foreign Minister, Jose Murature, in which the Argentine Minister mentions that his country has not made any protest over the issue of the Falklands since 1888.

December 30th, Sir William Douglas Young is gazetted as Governor.

Four Norwegian whaling companies are issued with South Orkney Whaling Licences by the Governor.

endurance-in-ice1915 – January 18th, Shackleton’s ship Endurance is trapped by sea ice.

In May, the new Governor arrives at Stanley.

May 28th, Captain Newnham is appointed Commandant, Falkland Islands Volunteer Force.

Britain’s Government Whaling Officer spends 3 months on the South Orkney Islands, inspecting whaling activities and applying British law.

August 29th, a telegraph link with Montevideo is established. Governor Young sends the first message via the undersea cable.

October 23rd, the sea ice that has entrapped Endurance for 10 months starts to crush the ship.

November 21st, Endurance finally sinks.

1916 – New Island’s whaling station moves to South Georgia.

March 11th, the floating whaling factory Horatio catches fire at South Georgia with 1820 tons of whale oil aboard. With the fire out of control the vessel is towed out to sea and left to burn.

HMS Kent, visits the Falkland Islands.

May 10th, Ernest Shackleton and five of his crew arrive in a small boat at King Haakon Bay, South Georgia.

May 14th, Carl Larsen’s original whale catcher, Fortuna, sinks off Hope point, South Georgia.

May 20th, Shackleton reaches Stromness whaling station where a whaling vessel, the Southern Sky, is fitted out for an attempt to rescue the other members of the expedition.

May 23rd, Southern Sky sails from South Georgia.

May 31st, Shackleton, unable to get close to the marooned members of his expedition, returns to Port Stanley.

June 16th, the Uruguayan fisheries vessel, Instituto Pesca, arrives at Port Stanley to pick up Shackleton for a further attempt to rescue his men from Elephant Island.

August 4th, the steel schooner Montebello sinks in Ocean Harbour, South Georgia.

August 11th, the Antarctic relief ship Discovery, sails from Portsmouth heading to the Falkland Islands.

August 30th, Shackleton succeeds in rescuing his expedition members in the Chilean ship Yelcho.

December 24th, HMS Lancaster arrives at Port Stanley.

1917 – a ban on the exportation of all whale products, other than to Great Britain, is imposed by the Governor. All licences are reviewed.

January 19th, HMS Lancaster offloads and emplaces two 6 inch guns on Sapper Hill and Mount Lowe for the protection of Stanley’s wireless station. “HMS Lancaster landed two officers and five men for each gun. To complete the gun crews Captain Segrave requested twenty five men and two signallers from the Falkland Islands Volunteer Force and this strength has been furnished.”

March 28th, Letters Patent are issued to clarify the area claimed by Britain in its 1908 Letters Patent.

.. explicitly all islands and territories situated between longitudes 20ºand 50º West, and south of latitude 50º South ; and all islands and territories situated between longitudes 50º and 80º West, and south of latitude 58º South.”

No protest is received from Argentina.

1918 – an Interdepartmental Committee of both scientists and civil servants is formed to consider; “ the preservation of the whaling industry and to the development of other industries in the Dependencies of the Falkland Islands.”

An additional seal reserve is added at South Georgia.

1919 – March 7th, Foreign Minister Pueyrredon complains to Interior Minister Ramon Gomez about the issue of an identity card to Ines Willes de Boe which gives her place of birth as – Islas Malvinas. Nacion: Ingleterra.”

November 14th, Argentina’s Ministry of Marine Affairs instructs all radiotelegraph stations in the maritime area not to accept messages from the Falkland Islands.

1920 – January, 50 whalers go on strike at Grytviken, and then riot.

January 17th, HMS Dartmouth arrives at South Georgia to assist the magistrate in restoring order.

In an experiment, Conifer, Sycamore, Alder and Mountain Ash tree seedlings are planted on Mt. Low.

September 19th, Sir John Middleton becomes Governor.

Consideration by the Interdepartmental Committee on Research and Development in the Falkland Islands Dependencies concludes and it presents its Report to Parliament. The Committee recommends further exploratory work in the Antarctic territory.

A new whaling station is established at Signy Island, South Orkneys, by A/S Tonsberg Hvalfangeri, under a lease for 500 acres from the Governor and a South Orkneys Whaling Licence. William Barlas is posted as the British presence on the South Orkney Islands.South Orkney Islands

December 25th, Governor Middleton arrives in Stanley to a salute of Guns from HMS Weymouth which is at anchor in Berkeley Sound.

A Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) is founded by the League of Nations in addition to the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Both sit at the Hague.

1921 – in January, HMS Weymouth visits South Georgia.

Guvernoren, a Norwegian whale factory ship, is wrecked at Cape Carysford.

A population census identifies 2,094 people present on the Islands while an investigation into the potential for oil exploration in the Islands takes place.

September 17th, Ernest Shacleton sails from London in the Quest, en-route to South Georgia and the Antarctic.

December 18th, the British Imperial Expedition to Graham Land is relived by the Falkland islands’ Dependencies magistrate, A. G. Bennett on the factory ship, Svend Foyn I

The South Georgia magistrate visits Signy Island in the South Orkney’s to investigate an application for a lease by the Tonsberg Hvalfangeri Company.

Shackleton1922 – January 5th, Sir Ernest Shackleton, the explorer, dies on the Quest whilst the vessel is moored off South Georgia. His embalmed body is taken to Montevideo, but returned to South Georgia at his wife’s request.

A Whaling Officer from the Falklands spends 3 months at Signy Island ensuring that the terms of the lease granted to the Tonsberg Hvalfangeri Company are being complied with.

March 5th, Shackleton is buried at Grytviken cemetery. A ceremonial escort is provided by Uruguay.

The Afterglow is employed as an armed patrol vessel for the Fur Seal rookeries.

1923 – a Discovery Committee is appointed by the British Government; “ conduct research into the economic resources of the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, with special reference to the Falkland Islands Dependencies.” It is to be funded by whaling industry taxes.

December 10th, Henry Herbert Gresham is appointed Consul for Norway at Port Stanley.

1924 – a postal service is inaugurated between South Georgia, the Falkland Islands and Uruguay.

January 30th, Henry Gresham also becomes Consul for Chile

Construction of laboratories at King Edwards point, South Georgia, begin.

November 25th, Gresham add the Consulate of Uruguay to his duties.

The Irish yachtsman Conor O’Brien arrives at Stanley in Saoirse where he assists the colonial secretary, Herbert Henniker-Heaton, to design a new crest for the Falklands.

1925 – March 7th, Swona sinks off South Georgia.

Argentina erects a wireless station at the meteorological station on Laurie Island. Britain’s Minister in Buenos Aires tells the Argentine Government, in a diplomatic Note, that the call sign will have to be applied for through the British Government. The Argentine ambiguous reply is that it will act in accord with the Conventions.

Differences have existed between the Governments of the United Kingdom and of the Republic of Argentina for a number of years, concerning pretensions advanced by the Republic in 1925 … to the sovereignty of certain Antarctic and sub-Antarctic territories which belonging to the United Kingdom under prior, long-standing, and well-established  legal titles, dating from, at latest, the period 1775-1843.”

April 1st, Britain erects a wireless station on South Georgia.

In Stanley, the Aliens Ordinance 1925 prohibits any alien from owning land in the Islands without a licence.

July 29th, in a Parliamentary speech during a debate on Navy Supplement Estimates, Sir B. Falle says; “ Have we a single friend in the world? If we have, I say frankly that I do not know him. Have we any land, have we any island, have we any coaling station, that other nations do not covet? .. Have we nothing the great nation on the other side might covet—may covet—from Jamaica to Bermuda, to the Bahamas, to Newfoundland, to Canada herself? Is there nobody coveting even the little Falkland Islands? You know they do.”

September 24th the first Discovery Expedition sails aboard RSS Discovery.

The Bodie Creek suspension bridge is built to connect Lafonia with the bulk of East Falkland.Bodie Creek

October 1st, the whaling vessel, Granat, sinks at Ice Fjord, South Georgia. The crew make it to the beach and are rescued by the whale catcher Semla.

1926 a Falklands monument is erected to commemorate the Battle of the Falklands, 1914.

April 4th, a further Note is addressed to Argentina emphasising Britain’s sovereignty over the South Orkneys; the requirement under the International Telegraph Conventions for the wireless station there to have a British registered call sign and pointing out that no previous claim to the islands has been made by Argentina.

No response is received from the Government in Buenos Aires.

April 26th, the RSS Discovery arrives at Stanley.

August 14th, Monsieur Beaudrier is appointed Vice-Consul of Belgium for the Falkland Islands.

December 22nd, Arnold Wienholt Hodson is gazetted as Governor.

1927 – January 17th, at South Georgia, Leith Harbour and Stromness Bay are surveyed. For the South Sandwich Islands, the Tonsberg Company take out a sealing licence from the Governor.

Britain attends a meeting of the Whaling Committee of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea to discuss whaling regulations in all waters. Argentina does not attend.

Not, in 1927, although she was a member of the League of Nations and had recently formulated pretentions to the South Orkneys and South Georgia, did Argentina take any part in the Whaling Conference convened at Geneva in that year, under the auspices of the League, which, if she had had sovereignty over these territories, she might be expected to have done. Nor did she voice any objection to the fact that the United Kingdom took a leading part in that conference in its capacity as the State responsible for the regulation of whaling in the Falkland Island Dependencies.”

June 8th, the new Governor arrives in Stanley.

Argentina puts its wireless station on Laurie Island into operation, applying directly to the International Telegraph Bureau in Berne for its own call sign and not submitting its application via the British Government as demanded. The Bureau informs the UK.

August 2nd, Governor Hodson sails to South Georgia in Fleurus.

September 8th, Britain formally protests Argentina’s application for a call-sign from the International Telegraph Bureau with regard to the Laurie Island wireless station.

At the urging of Victor Mallet, Britain’s charge d’affairs in Buenos Aires, the Foreign Office study a new book published at Yale University entitled The Struggle for the Falkland Islands by an American, Julius Goebel.

A minute notes; “This old controversy is quite dead – the Argentine press never refers to it nowadays and, as far as I know, there has been only one public reference to it worth noting in Argentina during the last few years and that by a ‘stunt’ politician…” (Tatham 2008)

In October, the Universal Postal Union circulates comments supplied by Government postal departments describing the extent of the territories over which they claimed jurisdiction. Observations by Argentina’s Postal Administration clearly include the Falkland islands and the Dependencies within its postal area.

As the Argentine authorities had gone out of their way to assert … a formal claim to these islands, it was felt that this further provocative action on their part could not be overlooked.”

October 5th, Sir Malcolm Robertson, the British Ambassador in Buenos Aires, writes to Governor Hodson; .. most unfortunately, and to my mind, most foolishly the feeling of the Argentines on the subject of the Falkland islands is very strong, though they have not even a little toe on which to stand they maintain their claim.”

A South Sandwich islands Whaling Licence is issued to the Tonsberg Company of Norway, by the Governor.

Governor Hodson responds to Ambassador Robertson, calling Argentina’s claims “ridiculous” and “childish.”

In December, British Foreign Secretary, Sir Austin Chamberlain has a meeting with Argentina’s Foreign Minister, Dr. Angel Gallardo, in which the Minister says that, “ .. he had been looking into the question of the Falkland Islands, and had come to the conclusion that (the British) position and claim were exceedingly strong.”

December 14th, Ambassador Robertson is instructed by the Foreign Office to demand that Buenos Aires withdraws its submission to the Postal Union.

December 15th, displaying a dramatic reversal of opinion; Robertson writes back to Hodson; “ .. if you read with care the Foreign Office memorandum of 7 December 1910, you must surely have realised that the Argentine attitude is neither ‘ridiculous’ nor ‘childish’, as you describe it and I myself had thought it to be. I confess that, until I received that memorandum myself a few weeks ago, I had no idea of the strength of the Argentine case nor of the weakness of ours … I freely admit that my attitude has changed since I wrote to you on 5th October. This has been caused by the Foreign Office memorandum. I had assumed that our right to the Falkland Islands was unassailable. This is very far from being the case.” (Beck 1983)

On the same day, Argentina writes again to the Postal Union; Argentina’s territorial jurisdiction extends, in law and in fact, the land surface, the territorial sea, the islands situated on the sea coast, to a part of Tierra del Fuego and the archipelagos of Estados, Ano Nuevo, South Georgia, South Orkney and the polar lands. Of right, indeed can not exercise because of the occupation held by Britain, also corresponds to the Falklands archipelago.”

December 19th, Britain protests Argentina’s pretensions of sovereignty in a diplomatic aide-memoire delivered by Britain’s Ambassador to the Acting-Foreign Minister; “ .. (who) stated that (Argentina) felt that she had a good claim to the islands. His Majesty’s Ambassador replied that we were fully aware of that, and that the Argentina Government were constantly maintaining that claim to us in writing. This was, however, a wholly different matter from allowing their Postal Administration to go out of its way to assert the claim to an international body. The Argentine Government must surely realise that His Majesty’s Government had not the smallest intention of evacuating the islands.”

1928 – in January the postal clerk on South Georgia, Alfred Jones, writes complaining of a shortage of stamps; “ … As you are aware the two and a halfpenny denomination is the postage for letter rate to Norway and we have about 2,000 Norwegians engaged in the whaling industry, more or less 2,000 more Norwegians than two and a halfpenny stamps.”

January 20th, Argentina replies to the British protests of the previous.

“As regards the South Orkneys the Argentine Government stated that all the antecedents confirmed the legal position of the Argentine Republic in the sovereignty over those islands, which she derived from other inalienable rights, from first effective occupation, constantly maintained.”

“… At the same time, however, the Argentine Government in an accompanying memorandum showed itself conscious of the weakness of its position by suggesting the reopening of the negotiations for the exchange of the islands against the grant of a Legation site in Buenos Aires.” (ICJ 1956)

January 30th, Britain’s Ambassador in Buenos Aires is informed by the Argentine Government that it has decided to renew the telegraph service between the Argentine Republic and the Falklands.

February 2nd, Governor Hodson visits Deception Island, the South Sandwich Islands aboard the Fleurus.

February 24th, at South Georgia, Governor Hodson unveils a granite memorial to Sir Ernest Shackleton. Carved on the rear is the inscription; “I hold that a man should strive to the uttermost for his life’s set prize.”

The Governor also inaugurates the first South Georgia sports meeting and opens a rifle range at Hope Point before leaving to visit Signy Islands in the South Orkney group.

On April 4th, in the Haig, the Permanent Court of Arbitration declares its judgment in the Islas de Palmas Case.

Concerning sovereignty, the relevance of geography (contiguity) is considered; ” .. there remains to be considered title arising out of contiguity. Although states have in certain circumstances maintained that islands relatively close to their shores belonged to them in virtue of their geographical situation, it is impossible to show the existence of a rule of positive international law to the effect that islands situated outside territorial waters should belong to a state from the mere fact that its territory forms the terra firma (nearest continent or island of considerable size). Not only would it seem that there are no precedents sufficiently frequent and sufficiently precise in their bearing to establish such a rule of international law, but the alleged principle itself is by its very nature so uncertain and contested that even governments of the same state have on different occasions maintained contradictory opinions as to its soundness.

The principle of contiguity, in regard to islands, may not be out-of-place when it is a question of allotting them to one state rather than another, either by agreement between the parties, or by a decision not necessarily based on law; but as a rule establishing ipso jure the presumption of sovereignty in favour of a particular state, this principle would be in conflict with what has been said as to territorial sovereignty and as to the necessary relation between the right to exclude other states from a region and the duty to display therein the activities of a state. Nor is this principle of contiguity admissible as a legal method of deciding questions of territorial sovereignty; for it is wholly lacking in precision and would in its application lead to arbitrary results….”

These modern cases of high authority, negative completely any Argentina claim based on alleged historic grounds of title derived from succession to supposed titles acquired by Spain. Apart from the fact that, on the evidence, no original Spanish titles can be established at all, the Islands of Palmas Case  and the Clipperton Island Case clearly show that any such early Spanish titles could not prevail to-day against long-continued British display and exercise of sovereignty. Again, even if it were possible to apply the doctrine of geographical contiguity to islands distant some 400 miles, or to a separate continent distant some 500 miles, from Argentine territory, the Island of Palmas Case negatives completely any Argentine claim based on so-called geographical grounds of title, and clearly lays down that they could not prevail against actual display and exercise of sovereignty.”  (ICJ 1956)

An Argentine socialist politician, Dr. Alfredo Palacios, visits the Islands.

May 30th, Britain’s Postmaster-General informs the International Bureau of the Postal Union that the Falkland Islands and their Dependencies remain under British jurisdiction and his authority to represent them could not be considered qualified in any way.

The Falkland Islands Sheep Owners Association is formed.

September 4th, the Governor reports that; “.. he had been informed on credible authority that the Government of the Argentine continued to do everything in its power to impede the freedom of trade between Argentina and the Falkland Islands and that, although it professed to regard the Colony as part of such territory, it enforced, nevertheless, payment of the export tax on goods shipped for the Falkland Islands as for other foreign countries without differentiation of treatment. “

November, an airstrip is constructed on Deception Island, in the South Shetland Islands, by the Hubert Wilkins Expedition, which makes the first recorded flight in Antarctica. The news is radioed from a home-made radio set, transmitted via Port Stanley.Hubert Wilkins Expedition

November 3rd, from Buenos Aires, Ambassador Robertson writes to the Foreign Office; “As regards the Falkland Islands, I have always considered, ever since reading the Bernhardt’s Foreign Office memorandum of December, 1910, that our claim to the islands was very weak indeed. In point of fact, it is based upon force and upon very little else. This view appears to have been held by successive British Governments since Lord Palmerston’s days, for they have been at pains to avoid the question’s being raised. I realize that the islands are of vital strategic value to us, and that we cannot give them up, however just or unjust our position may be. All I want to do is to follow out the policy of previous Governments and to remain quite quiet. I do not think that the Argentine Government will seriously raise the question unless we force their hands by taking umbrage at their periodical pin pricks, and their periodical reassertions of their claim.”

November 21st, Monsieur Maylin is appointed Vice-Consul for Belgium.

1929 – June 10th, the far-right Patriotic League of Argentina, an irredentist movement, meet in Buenos Aires and demand the return of the Islands.

La Prensa calls for the surrender of the Falklands as an “act of justice”, by the British Government.

The Monroe Doctrine, according to which there was not in America any land for  colonization, although it had just recently been proclaimed, did not function. It remained unrecognized by the State Department of Washington, and at that price it refused satisfaction and the indemnity it should have given for the injury to the sovereignty of Argentina and the destruction of Vernet’s colony carried out by the captain of the gunboat Lexington. Before the English could take possession of the islands, the Argentine Government decided that it was necessary to repopulate them. On Sept.10, 1832, since Commandante Vernet, by reason of health, could not return to re-establish Soledad, Major Mestivier was named in his stead; he proceeded to the Malvinas in the bark Sarandi and took possession in the name of the Argentine Republic on Oct.10. But England had now decided upon the occupation of the islands by force, seeing that the United States had thrown over the Monroe Doctrine because it did not suit her to do police work on behalf of Argentina and to apply the Doctrine to the Malvinas…. the British Navy took possession of the islands and obligated the Argentine colonists to abandon it …. since that time the Argentine Republic has not ceased and will not cease to demand the restitution of that part of its territory usurped by British occupation”

“ … As the resumption of actual occupation of the Falkland Islands by Great Britain in 1833 took place under a claim of title which had been previously asserted and maintained by that Government, it is not seen that the Monroe doctrine, which has been invoked on the part of the Argentine Republic, has any application to the case. By the terms in which that principle of international conduct was announced, it was expressly excluded from retroactive operation. ..” (Bayard to Quseada 1886)

1930at the Foreign Office, a legal adviser, Gerald Fitzmaurice, circulates a memorandum regarding the South Orkney Islands.

The question of the South Orkneys is to a considerable extent bound up with that of the Falkland Islands, to which the Argentine Government also lay claim. The connexion between the two questions is, however, a political and not a legal one.

The history of the Falkland Islands question is too involved for consideration in this statement. It will be sufficient to say that, after a variety of different occupations during the last half of the 18th century, British, Spanish and French, the islands were finally taken possession of, on behalf of the Crown, in 1832, and have been in effective British occupation ever since, a period close on 100 years.

During this period the Argentine Government have consistently maintained a claim to the islands, and have from time to time presented His Majesty’s Government with a reasoned statement of it. The last occasion on which a detailed statement was put forward was in 1888, and in reply His Majesty’s Government contented themselves with declining to enter into any further discussion of the matter. Since that date the Argentine Government have, on more than one occasion, been told in the most unequivocal terms that His Majesty’s Government would never in any circumstances contemplate renouncing any rights over or abandoning their possession of the Falkland Islands, but they have, nevertheless, persisted in their claim …

It should be mentioned that, from the purely legal point of view, the Argentine claim to the Falkland Islands is probably less weak, or at any rate more plausible, than their claim to the South Orkneys. … Since, however, His Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom cannot, for reasons to be stated later, contemplate renouncing any of their rights over the Falkland Islands or even going to arbitration on the matter, no direct solution of that question appears possible so long as the Argentine Government maintain their present attitude. …”  (Godwin 1936)

September 6th, in Buenos Aires, the Government of Hipolito Yrigoyen is replaced in a coup by forces loyal to General Jose Uriburu.

December 30th, Discovery II completes her survey of the South Sandwich Islands.

1931 – January 28th, an arbitration panel formed under an agreement between France and Mexico, and under the patronage of Italy’s King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, announces its decision over the sovereignty of Clipperton Island; “It is beyond doubt that by immemorial usage having the force of law, besides the animus occupandi, the actual, and not the nominal, taking of possession is a necessary condition of occupation. This taking of possession consists in the act, or series of acts, by which the occupying state reduces to its possession the territory in question and takes steps to exercise exclusive authority there. Strictly speaking, and in ordinary cases, that only takes place when the state establishes in the territory itself an organization capable of making its laws respected. But this step is, properly speaking, but a means of procedure to the taking of possession, and, therefore, is not identical with the latter. There may also be cases where it is unnecessary to have recourse to this method. Thus, if a territory, by virtue of the fact that it was completely uninhabited, is, from the first moment when the occupying state makes its appearance there, at the absolute and undisputed disposition of that state, from that moment the taking of possession must be considered as accomplished, and the occupation is thereby completed.”

Thus the Island of Palmas Case and the Clipperton Island Case indicate that the British takings of possession created initial British titles superior to any of Argentina’s pretended historical or geographical titles.” [ICJ 1956]

April 30th, Leonard William Hamilton Young is appointed Consul for Norway.

A population census reveals that 2,392 people are on the Islands.

June 20th, James O’Grady is appointed Governor of the Falkland Islands.

1932 Alfred Nelson Jones and Vera Riches are married in the first such ceremony on South Georgia. Welshman Jones, is the postal clerk on the island but first met Riches in Port Stanley.

1933 – January 1st, an article in La Prensa; “ Our nation never forgets that a foreign flag waves over a portion of the Argentine soil which belongs to us geographically and historically.”

January 2nd, 100 years of uninterrupted British rule over the Falklands are commemorated by the construction of the Whalebone Arch outside the Cathedral in Stanley, made from the jawbones of two blue whales.

The celebrations of the Falklands Centenary in 1933 began with a tribute to the memory of Matthew Brisbane. The Lafonia carrying the Governor and 123 other passengers sailed from Stanley to Port Louis and a wreath was laid at Brisbane’s grave where the weather beaten wooden marker was replaced with a new marble gravestone.” (Tatham 2008)

A 12 stamp set with 1833-1933 on each stamp is issued. The £1 stamp pictures George V in the uniform of the Gordon Highlanders. Centenary celebrations also include a stock fair, horse racing and a radio message from the King.

January 20th, Governor O’Grady seeks advice from the Foreign Office as to the policy to be taken in dealing with the issue of Argentine pretensions, notes; “They will not recognise our passports and insist upon our people when they arrive in the Argentine, taking out another passport. There are some other acts of theirs that while irritating need not be commented upon but the last of their pretensions – the matter of our Centenary Stamps – seems to be about the limit. Our stamps are declared to be invalid when the Falkland islands’ people write to their friends in the Argentine; they are surcharged and a fine is imposed before delivery can be effected. Further than that, they have written to the International Postal Bureau at Berne informing them that in view of Argentina’s ‘Sovereignty Rights’ they are to take notice that the Falkland Islands stamps are invalid. Incidentally, from the philatelists’ point of view the stamps will become much more valuable as a result of this extraordinary attitude of the Argentine.”

On January 24th, a child, Iorwerth Nelson Arnold Jones, is born on South Georgia.

In February, the Islands are visited by HMS Durban and HMS Discovery.

February 17th, a cruise ship, Reina del Pacifico, arrives at Port Stanley.

March 11th, the Argentine Government announces in the press that its Post Office will no longer recognise the franking of Falklands stamps. “The result of this action would be that recipients in Argentina of letters bearing the stamps would be called upon to pay the postage plus the usual fine. “ (Godwin 1936)

March 17th, Ambassador Ronald Macleay reports that the Argentine press consider the commemorative stamps to be, ‘provocative’.

Sir R. Macleay added that the issue of the centenary stamps had undoubtedly taken place at an unfortunate moment in Anglo-Argentine relations, as it was bound to cause unfavourable comment and to reopen in the Argentine press the whole question of the sovereignty of the islands at a time when it was important that it should be forgotten. Nevertheless, the action of the Argentine Government in refusing to recognise the issue was as unexpected as it was childish…” (Godwin 1936)

May 1st, an Additional Convention to the Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation 1825 is signed in London between the UK and the Government of the Argentine Republic, aiming to facilitate trade and commerce between the two countries. Known as the Roca-Runciman Treaty, Vice-President Roca states that now; “It can be said that Argentina is an integral economic part of the British Empire”

After the Roca-Runciman treaty, a profusion of new nationalist writers and factions began to appear. For a time the nationalist movement was largely dominated by historians who sought to fuel the campaign against the British. These historical “revisionists” began to reexamine the 19th century .. Britain’s imperialist encroachments: the British invasions of 1806-1807, Britain’s role in the foundation of Uruguay in the late 1820s, its seizure of the Falkland Islands in 1833, the blockades under Rosas … Propaganda of this kind made a deepening imprint on public opinion and helped sustain nationalist sentiments …” (Rock 1987)

September 11th, Britain’s Postmaster-General informs the Universal Postal Union in Berne that, in their refusal to recognise the Falkland Islands centenary stamps, the Argentines were in breach of the Postal Union Convention.

October 25th, Sir Henry Chilton, now Ambassador in Buenos Aires, suggests to London that; “ .. the moment was propitious for a settlement, following the ratification of the new Anglo-Argentine Convention, and the conviction that would seem to exist on both sides that the close economic co-operation, not to mention closer cultural relations, would be to the mutual advantage of both countries. He also revived for consideration, the idea to exchange the South Orkneys for an Embassy House site in Buenos Aires… “

November 13th, the Foreign Office respond to the Governor’s January request for directions.

He was informed that His Majesty’s Government fully appreciated the position and were anxious to relieve his Government from its embarrassments. They could not leave out of account the feeling which had been aroused in Argentina by the Falkland Islands Centenary Celebrations, and particularly by the commemorative issue of postage stamps.

The latter measure had given rise to a communication by the Argentine Postal Administration to the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union. It was thought unnecessary at that stage to discuss in any detail the question of the validity of His Majesty’s title to the Falkland Islands. The matter had formed the subject of discussion and correspondence for many years past. His Majesty’s Government were advised that that title, while unquestionably strong, is based mainly upon the right of prescription, and that the British thesis could not be considered as necessarily bound to succeed if the question were submitted to international arbitration. … The Governor would clearly understand that His Majesty’s Government do not admit any question whatever as to the validity of His Majesty’s title to the islands. On that point they could make no concession to Argentine opinion, and would submit to no diminution of their material rights and interests. Nevertheless, it appeared to them prudent, in matters likely to excite comment in Argentina, to act in the manner best calculated, while safeguarding the practical requirements of the Falkland Islands administration, to avoid any unnecessary controversy with the Argentine Government or people.“ (Godwin 1936)

December 20th, at the Foreign Office, W. E. Beckett writes; “The object of this minute is to submit some observations with regard to the South Orkneys, showing that the position with regard to them is not so clear as it is in regard to the Falkland Islands. In the case of the Falkland Islands, we not only have our long-established claim to sovereignty, but a century old physical occupation, which is so complete as to render it impossible for the Argentines to introduce any change in the situation….”

1934 – January 22nd, Ambassador Macleay writes to the Foreign Office; “There is no genuine irredentist movement for the recovery of the Falkland group, as all sensible Argentines realise that the islands would be useless to them … The question is really more than anything else a hobby-horse for a certain type of politician and jingle, which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, both on principle and for internal political reasons, are unable to ignore altogether; … It is therefore unlikely to become a serious political issue, …”

February 25th, rumours circulate in the press that a decision has been made to fortify the Falklands with a new naval base. In La Prensa; “..Establishment of such a base would constitute a new affirmation of English pretensions never admitted by Argentina.”

Capt. Theodore Caillet-Bois, leading Argentine naval historian, said, “If the Panama Canal were closed by a war between the United States and Japan, the Falklands would regain all their old naval importance…”

The manager of the San Julian Sheep Farming Company, A. L. Blake, an islander by birth and holder of a British Passport, applies for an Argentine visa at the Argentine Consulate in London. He is told that; “ .. under a recent Decree British subjects born in the Falkland Islands had to apply for an Argentine passport before being permitted to enter Argentina; ..” (Godwin 1936)

When asked, the British Embassy in Buenos Aires informs the Foreign Office that no such Decree has been passed and that the consular officials in London appear to be acting upon an Argentine circular dated February 17th stating; “ … With a view to adopting a uniform procedure and by reason of the fact that persons born in the Falkland Islands are of Argentine nationality, your Excellency should inform the officers under your jurisdiction that, as it is impossible to visa this class of passport, Argentine passports should be issued to such applicants.”

A grant of £10,000 is made towards the expenses of an expedition to Graham Land from the Falkland Islands Dependencies Research Development Fund.

In June, Dr. Palacios, urges Argentina’s Congress to pass a law requiring all Secondary schools to be supplied with a history of the Falklands based on Les Isles Malouines, the 1920 book by the Argentine historian, Paul Groussac, which promotes an Argentine claim to the Islands; “ It being necessary that all inhabitants of the Republic should know that the Falkland Islands are Argentine and that Great Britain, without any title of sovereignty, took possession of them by force.”

August 9th, the British Ambassador is instructed to raise the issue of Blake’s visa and to complain that they; “ … had now .. seen fit to introduce and rigorously enforce departmental regulations which amounted, in practice, to the complete exclusion of British subjects born in the Falkland Islands from Argentina.”

September 26th, the new law, 11,904, comes into force. The school book is entitled – ‘Las Malvinas: Compendio de la obra de Paul Groussac para los institutos de enseñanza de la Nacion’

December 29th, Herbert Henniker-Heaton is gazetted Governor of the Falkland Islands.

1935 – January 23rd, a minute by J.Vyvyan of the Foreign Office’s American Department notes; It is our settled policy to avoid any discussion of the Falkland Islands question.”

February 10th, the new Governor arrives in the Falklands.

February 22nd, in Buenos Aires, Argentina’s Minister of the Interior orders the cancellation of a police identification certificate issued to Mr. Francis Ushuaia Lewis. Born in the Falklands, the ID certificate states that Lewis is a ‘British subject.’

July 25th, in a parliamentary question, the Foreign Secretary is asked about the case of Francis Lewis and whether Britain will make representations to the Argentine Government. The Foreign Secretary, Anthony Eden, responds that the British Ambassador had; “.. raised the matter with the Argentine Ministry for Foreign Affairs at the time, and was informed that the Argentine authorities considered themselves entitled to revoke, for whatever reason, identity cards issued by themselves. ..”

September 25th, in an Argentine ministerial resolution, income of Falkland Islands origin is to be considered for income tax purposes as accruing from Argentine sources.

December 6th, from Buenos Aires, Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson writes to Sir Robert Craigie to suggest that Britain should perhaps recognise Argentina’s “legal” claim to the Falklands in return for Great Britain’s undisturbed occupation thereof.

December 10th, a despatch to the British Embassy in Buenos Aires states; “ .. that this decision of the Argentine Government unfortunately appeared to offer further evidence of their intention to pursue a policy of pin-pricks in connexion with the dispute over the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands. ..”

Argentina issues a set of 10 stamps one of which purports to show Argentina’s borders. Chile, Peru and the United Kingdom make official protests. The stamp is reissued but still shows the Falkland Islands as Argentine territory.

1936 – February 2nd, aware that Lord Apsley is to submit a written question in the House of Lords on the 10th regarding Argentina’s stamp showing the Falklands as Argentine territory; the Foreign Office ask for the legal opinion of Gerald Fitzmaurice on whether; “ .. any international convention exists to prevent the issue of misleading stamps..”

February 3rd, a memorandum entitled ‘The Falkland Islands and Dependencies’ is circulated within the FCO.

So far back as 1844 (sic) the Argentine Government made a request for arbitration in the case of the Falkland Islands which was categorically refused for the reason that His Majesty’s Government are not in any circumstances prepared to envisage the possibility of such an arbitration going against them. The Falkland Islands have been in effective British occupation for nearly a century and have a considerable British population together with extensive British fishing and whaling interests. From the naval point of view the islands are also of considerable strategic importance constituting as they do almost the only base in the South Atlantic.”  (Greig 1983)

February 6th, Gerald Fitzmaurice responds; “ … there is no general rule of international law which would prevent a country from issuing stamps of this nature if they consider they have a good claim to the territory concerned. The United States did something of the same sort not long ago … We can of course argue with the Argentine Government for issuing the stamps on the ground that they have no valid claim to the Falkland Islands, but in the last resort the only way in which we could prevent them from issuing the stamps … would be by going to arbitration and obtaining a decision that their claim was bad in law. But in point of fact we are not particularly anxious to go to arbitration,* and I think our correct policy is to sit tight in the Falkland Islands and to refuse to discuss the matter, beyond intimating from time to time that we do not admit the Argentine claim and resent their continued insistence on it. ..

* Our case has certain weaknesses. But we have been in effective (…) occupation for over a century; and for strategical reasons we could never give up the islands. So it seems best to take a strong line. …”

[ The note appertaining to the asterisk was penned in the margin of Fitzmaurice’s typed response.]

February 10th, Lord Apsley submits his question asking the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs – “ .. whether the British Government has taken any steps to object to the postage stamps issued by the Argentine Government on which the Falkland Islands are shown as Argentine property; and whether any international convention exists to prevent the issue of misleading stamps of the kind ?”

Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden telegrams Buenos Aires instructing the Embassy to raise the issue with the Argentine Foreign Ministry and restate the; “ .. intention of His Majesty’s Government to maintain their claim to the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands.”

February 11th, Eden replies to Lord Apsley; “In so far as the issue by the Argentine Government of the stamp in question is based on the assertion of an Argentine claim to the Falkland Islands, I welcome the opportunity of stating that His Majesty’s Government cannot admit any such claim to the Islands, which are British territory. The Argentine Government are already well aware of the views of His Majesty’s Government on this subject; but His Majesty’s Ambassador at Buenos Aires has been instructed once more to draw the attention of the Argentine Government to the fact that no useful purpose can be served by such actions as the issue of the stamp in question, which can only be detrimental to good relations between the two countries. The answer to the second part of the question is in the negative.”

February 17th, the coal hulk, Lady Elizabeth, breaks her mooring lines in a storm and beaches in Whale Bone Cove.

April 6th, Ambassador Henderson writes to Anthony Eden repeating his suggestion that Britain should recognise Argentina’s claim to the Falklands in exchange for an undisturbed occupation.

April 22nd, following a further British protest, the Argentine Post Office states in a memo“The withdrawal of the stamp could lead to the belief that the Argentine Republic was backing off from its rights to the Malvinas Islands”.

August 28th, Eden responds to Ambassador Henderson, noting; “… you should be aware that the legal basis of the (British) claim is far less weak than at one time supposed…” Eden 1936

In the first place, 100 years possession, whether disputed or not, should found a perfectly sound title to sovereignty over the islands in international law, and there should be very little danger of such a title failing of recognition by the Permanent Court of International Justice or an international tribunal. Meanwhile, each year that passes, and in addition the celebration of the centenary of British occupation, strengthen His Majesty’s Government’s case. At the same time there is reason to doubt whether, in fact, Argentina ever had any grounds of claim to the islands at all. In the diplomatic exchanges of 1833 the case would seem to have been argued upon the wrong grounds by both sides.

It would seem that the events in the 18th century were irrelevant, that the islands had become completely unoccupied in 1811, and that they had to be considered at that time as ‘res nullius’ open to the occupation of any State. Further, unless the occupation of the privateer Vernet, whom the Argentine Government tried rather unsuccessfully to clothe with their authority, can be considered to have been an Argentine occupation, the islands were ‘res nullius’ at the time of the British reoccupation in 1832. To sum up, His majesty’s Government’s case may be considered to rest upon two alternative grounds –

(i) The islands were res nullius at the time at the time of the British occupation in 1832, and therefore it was possible for Great Britain (as for any other State) to obtain a sovereignty there by occupation, which it did.

(ii) If (i) is wrong, and if, in 1832, Argentina had possessed sovereignty, Great Britain has been in peaceable, though not undisputed, possession for 100 years, and has therefore acquired a title by prescription.”

The only other method of solution that suggests itself is arbitration. Here too, however, I consider that the risk involved, slight though it may be, would not be justified, since an adverse decision would cost His majesty’s Government no less than their whole strategic position in the south Atlantic. … The Argentine Government could, of course, bring the matter before the League of Nations, but there is no indication that any such action is likely, nor is it probable that it would be effective even were it to be taken. All they can do, therefore, is to continue creating minor incidents, against which protest can be made as and when necessary, but otherwise there seems to be nothing to prevent the indefinite British occupation of the islands.”

Whale catcher Septa sinks in Stromness Bay.

1937 – January, Ambassador Henderson writes to Sir Anthony Eden; “The Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs informed the counsellor to the Embassy that the Ministry for Foreign Affairs had no desire whatever to make an issue of the Falkland Islands question, but that their position was awkward when politicians or the press brought it to the fore, and when Government departments or the judiciary referred to them matters connected with it, they could not avoid taking official notice. They desired, however, as far as possible, to keep the matter in the background, and as a proof of their goodwill they had erased from the forthcoming presidential message to Congress all reference to contentious questions connected with the Falkland Islands.”

March 10th, in answer to a question in the House of Commons concerning the meteorological station on Laurie Island; “His Majesty’s Government …  do not regard the Argentine maintenance of the observatory as constituting any claim to sovereignty over either the South Orkneys or the Falkland Islands, both of which His Majesty’s Government consider to be British territory.”

April 12th, the wreck of the SS Great Britain is beached in Sparrow Cove.

In May, two Falkland Islanders seeking permission to live in Buenos Aires are refused a visa as they are considered to be Argentine citizens.

May 24th, the International Conference for the Regulation of Whaling opens.

It was only in 1937 that Argentina first participated in an international whaling conference and contested the United Kingdom’s right to represent the whaling interests of the Dependencies.”

June 1st, the Argentine Ambassador in London protests about a statement made by the British Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries during a session of the Whaling Conference; that the Dependencies were under the jurisdiction of the Falkland Islands’ Government.

Notwithstanding the United Kingdom’s open assumption, and long-standing and peaceful exercise of sovereignty over the territories concerned, and the clear and precise delimitation of the Falkland Islands Dependencies in the above-mentioned Letters Patent, the Government of the Republic of Argentina formulated pretensions in … or about 1937 to allthe territories of the Falkland Islands Dependencies…. The acts of the Parties after 1925 in the case of the South Orkneys, and after 1937 in the case of the South Shetlands and Graham Land, are of limited juridical relevance … the dispute crystallised when Argentina first asserted her claims … and according to well-established principles of law, it is at the date of crystallisation that the rights of the parties are to be adjudged. The subsequent acts of the Argentine Government were clearly undertaken, not as a genuine manifestation of an existing title, but with a view to trying to create one, and in order to improve Argentina’s legal position.” (Letter to the ICJ 1955])

June 26th, Ambassador Charles Dodd writes to Anthony Eden from Buenos Aires; For Argentina the question involves her national pride … in 200 years, when the Argentine nation had become the greatest nation in the world, the question of the Falkland Islands would find its solution. “

Governor Miles Clifford tours the Dependencies in HMS Ajax.

1938 – February 2nd, Argentina declares that all people born in the Falkland Islands are to be considered as Argentine citizens. An Islander, Mr. J.F. Langdon is granted an Argentine passport.

Aerial surveys of South Georgia are made from HMS Exeter using Walrus aircraft.

September 22nd, at the Postal Convention in Cairo, Argentina expands its claims with regard to postal jurisdiction to include all the Dependencies.

1939 – June 27th, J. V. Perowne of the American Department, notes; .. our consistent policy has been to avoid a clash with the Argentine government over this question and we have consistently shown great forebearance in dealing with various provocative actions …”

In July, the Government of Agustín Pedro Justo Rolón, establishes a National Antarctic Commission under Decree 35 821,  to consider the potential for Argentine claims in the Antarctic peninsula.

Dagnino Pastore, a popular writer of geography texts for Argentine schools, refers to Britain’s ‘possession’ of more than 8 million square kilometers of the Antarctic.

August 18th, the Alliance of Nationalist Youth in Argentina, publish a pamphlet to celebrate the ‘reconquest’ of Buenos Aires from British forces in 1807. “132 years ago the native people of this country made the ENGLISH invaders bite the dust of defeat in the streets of Buenos Aires. Today the vanquished of 1806 and 1807 dominate our Islas Malvinas of which they  deprived us by violence thus doing honour to their well established fame as PIRATES And now they are endeavouring to take possession of Antarctic Regions under Argentine sovereignty. At the same time they control the essential factors which govern our economic life, and while they wax rich as a result of our Railways, our Urban Transport Systems and our Frigoríficos, the native population of the country suffers hunger and misery. This is why we now proclaim the necessity for ANOTHER RECONQUEST.”

In September, the United Kingdom declares war on Germany.

September 21st, the Argentine delegation attending the Panama Conference declares that; “ .. in the waters adjacent to the American continent, … the Argentina Republic … does not recognize the existence of colonies or possessions of European countries, and especially reserves and maintains intact the legitimate rights of Argentina in the Falkland islands, as well to any other Argentine lands in such waters …” (Caillet-Bois 6th ed. 1982)

Panama ConfOctober 3rd, the Declaration of Panama provides for a security zone around the Americas in an attempt to keep the conflict of WWII at a distance; “As a measure of continental self-protection, the American. Republics, so long as they maintain their neutrality, are as of inherent right entitled to have those waters adjacent to the American continent, which they regard as of primary concern and direct utility in their relations, free from the commission of any hostile act by any non-American belligerent nation, whether such hostile act be attempted or made from land, sea or air.”

At Argentina’s insistence, the Falklands are included within the zone, while South Georgia remains outside it.

October 25th, at the Foreign Office, Perowne notes; “Now we are at war their hopes of acquiring our possessions in the South Atlantic are probably a good deal higher.”

Noticias Graficas publishes an interview with Pueyrredon, in which he says that the Argentine claim to the Falklands is “undeniable”, but, in the circumstances, “inopportune and unchivalrous.”

October 26th, in Britain, the Overseas Defence Committee convenes to consider the defence of the Falkland Islands’ and South Georgia’s oil stores.

October 29th, a pressure group calling itself, ‘Junta de Recuperación de las Malvinas,’ is formed by a group of nationalists following a meeting at the home of Dr. Palacio. A member of this Junta, Carlos Obligado, writes the lyrics of a patriotic song asserting Argentine sovereignty over the Falklands. Subsequently put to music by Jose Tieri the song is entitled, ‘Marcha de las Malvinas’.

December 2nd, HMS Exeter and HMS Ajax are at Port Stanley.

December 13th, HMS Exeter is damaged in a battle with the German pocket battleship Graf Spee, and is ordered to make its way to the Falkland islands

December 26th, the cruiser Cumberland, arrives at Port Stanley with 107 German prisoners-of-war.

1940 – March 6th, in Parliament; “… the Colony is finding this year a sum of nearly £21,000 for defence purposes which is equivalent to about 30 per cent. of the pre-war revenue. Towards this expenditure fresh taxation which is estimated to provide some £14,000 additional revenue has been imposed. … these figures reflect credit on this small Colony whose total population is less than 3,000 persons.”

April 30th, Argentina’s National Antarctic Commission is made permanent under Decree 61 852.

In July, at the Havana Conference further concerns are raised that European colonies may fall under Axis control. The delegates from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and the USA agree that there should be a collective trusteeship of any territory which appears to be in such danger. However, delegates also decree that such territories should eventually have the right to determine their own futures. Argentina submits a reservation to the final text asserting that it; “ …does not include the Falkland islands as these do not constitute a Colony or possession of any European nation, being part of (Argentina’s) territory and included within its domain and sovereignty …”

In Argentina, Dagnino Pastore, changes the content of his geography text from 1939; taking out the word ‘possess’. The text now suggest that Britain ‘attributes to itself”  8 million square kilometers of the Antarctic.

September 11th, Argentina proposes a conference to consider the ‘juridical-political’ status of Antarctica.

Argentine diplomats express concerns about a report in the Washington Post that the US has obtained a naval base in the Falklands from Britain. The reports are denied.

November 6th, a Chilean Presidential Decree claims; “the Chilean Antarctic… to be all lands, islands, islets, reefs, glaciers (pack-ice), already known or to be discovered, and their respective territorial waters… (between longitudes) 53 degrees and 90 degrees west ..”

November 12th, Argentina protests, but accepts an invitation from Chile to discuss the matter; “ .. It will be observed from the note that Argentina bases its claim to the Antarctic areas in question on, 1) continuous occupation through maintenance of an observatory in the South Orkneys established 37 years ago; 2) certain expeditions made by its Navy, and 3) the geographic proximity of the area to the archipelago of the Falkland Islands, which it asserts, “is also a part of our national territory.”

December 11th, Dr. Puerredon, Mayoy of Buenos Aires, in a conversation with Lord Willingdon, suggests that in exchange for the UK recognising Argentine sovereignty, Argentina would be prepared to ‘lease-back’ the Falklands archipelago to Britain for a pepper-corn rent of between one and five pesos per annum for 100 years.

December 13th, Dr. Pueyrredon, Mayor of Buenos Aires, in a conversation with Lord Willingdon, suggest that in exchange for UK recognition of Argentine sovereignty, the archipelago would be ‘leased-back’ to Britain for a pepper-corn rent of between one and five pesos per annum for 100 years.

1941 – Allan Wolsey Cardinall is promoted from Colonial Secretary to the position of Governor.

January 3rd, a ceremony at the tomb of Luis Vernet is held by the, ‘Junta de Recuperación de las Malvinas.’Tomb

January 22nd, Queen of Bermuda, an armed merchant cruiser, arrives at South Georgia.

February 25th, the UK rejects the Chile’s territorial claims over British Antarctica.

Argentina informs the International Postal Union that they are opening a permanent post office in the South Orkneys after their navy takes over the meteorological station on Laurie Islands from the civilian staff that had previously manned the base.

In March, representatives from Chile and Argentina meet to discuss their mutual interests in Antarctica. The two countries agree to a combined title, whilst still maintaining their individual claims.

March 5th, HMS Queen of Bermuda destroys fuel supplies on Deception Island to prevent them falling into German hands. The fuel had been left by the Hektor Whaling Company, which held a British lease. Gun batteries are established on South Georgia.

This measure, which was taken to deny the use of the oil tanks and fuel stocks to Axis raiders, constituted a most significant display and exercise of British sovereignty over the South Shetlands.”

May 28th, Argentina’s President, Roberto María Ortiz, restates Argentina’s claim to the Falkland islands in his Message to Congress; for the first time in the 92 years since President Rosas’ last mention in 1849.

August 14th, Britain and the USA sign the Atlantic Charter which includes agreement that; “all people have a right to self-determination.”

September 9th, Prime Minister Winston Churchill tells Parliament that the right contained in the Atlantic Charter is only aimed at those territories under the, “Nazi yoke.”

September 26th, in Buenos Aires, Capt. Ernesto Villanueva of the Argentine Navy, presents a plan to invade the Falkland Islands while the UK is “.. occupied in other world theatres.. .”

December 7th, Japanese forces attack the US fleet at Pearl Harbour.

December 16th, the Buenos Aires newspaper, Pampero, claims that it is “inevitable” that Britain will transfer the Falkland Islands to the United States.

1942 – in January, a Pan-American conference of Foreign Ministers is held in Rio de Janeiro to discuss the implications of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. Argentina asks for responsibility for the protection of the Falkland Islands.

These blackmail tactics are what might have been expected of the  government of acting President Castillo and Sr. Ruíz Guiñazu [Foreign Minister]. Either way they have something to gain. If they do not get the Falklands they have an admirable excuse for staying out of the war; if they do get them they at once become national heroes instead of being disliked and despised by 90% of the Argentine public”

Primero de mayoPrimero de Mayo sails from Buenos Aires with orders to raise the Argentine flag over Deception Island and Graham Land; inscribed bronze plates are also to be put in place asserting Argentina’s claim to all lands lying between 25º  and 68º 34′ West and south of latitude 60º South.

In August, 2000 men from the 11th Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment arrive to garrison the Falkland Islands.

October, in Buenos Aires, Ambassador David Kelly, instructed to protest the Argentine expedition, refuses; “ .. this is one political question on which all Argentines are agreed and if (which of course may be untrue) the Minister for Foreign Affairs is really pro-German … we might be sending him a heaven sent opportunity (to break off relations).”

During December, HMS Carnarvon Castle is sent to patrol the Falkland Islands and Dependencies; “… to examine the anchorages in those territories for any signs of use by enemy raiders, and to investigate Press reports of purported acts of sovereignty at Deception Island by the Argentine naval transport Primero de Mayo.”

1943 – January 8th, troops from Carnarvon Castle land at Deception Island and; “… obliterated from the walls of the Hektor Whaling Company’s factory the national colours of Argentina, which appeared to have been painted on them recently by the Primero de Mayo. and also removed the Argentine notice of claim. … A writ was at the same time affixed to the building proclaiming that the company’s lease had lapsed and that the building was the property of the British Government.”

February 8th, sailors from Carnarvon Castle erect flagstaffs carrying the Union Jack at Signy Island.

February 9th, on the ship’s arrival at Laurie Island, no flag is seen to be flying over the Argentine base.

February 11th, in Buenos Aires, the bronze plate recovered from Deception Island is returned by to the Foreign Ministry with the message that; “.. the United Kingdom Government had no intention of allowing the British title to the island to be usurped by Argentina.” TheForeign Ministry’s immediate response is that Argentina considers its claims to have been; “inherited from Spain.”

February 15th, n a diplomatic memorandum Argentina; “… defined her pretensions in the area south of latitude 60′ South as covering all Antarctic lands and dependencies between longitudes 25º and 68º 34′ West. It also purported to “protest” against jurisdictional acts carried out by British officials.”

.. it was the first occasion on which a formal claim to sovereignty over territory in the Antarctic had been put forward by any Argentine Government.” (Hunter-Christie 1951)

February 18th, Argentina’s post office, in a note sent to the International Postal Union, contests Britain’s right to regulate the movement of mail through the Falkland Islands.

In Stanley, Governor Cardinall establishes a Naming Committee to assist in the preparation of accurate maps of the Falklands by the Royal Engineers.

April 7th, the UK responds to Argentina’s memorandum with another – asserting its British titles.

Primero de Mayo arrives back at Deception Island where members of the crew erect the Argentine flag, replace the bronze plate and repaint Argentine colours onto the walls of the old whaling factory there.

1944 – in January, a small miltary force, code-named Operation Tabarin, arrives at port Stanley with instructions to establish British bases  on Deception Island and in Graham Land.

January 29th, HMS William Scoresby and SS Fitzroy, sail from the Falklands with the Operation Tabarin troops.

February 3rd, on Deception Island, a British base is constructed together with Post and Telegraph offices.

In Argentina, Dagnino Pastore amends the content of his school geography text yet again; replacing the section on the Antarctic to claim ‘unquestionable rights’ for Argentina over a vast Antarctic sector.

February 25th, in Argentina, Brigadier-General Edelmiro Farrell is appointed as President. His vice-President is named as Juan Peron.

Magistrates are sworn in for the South Orkneys, South Shetlands and Graham Land.1944

April 17th, The Town Hall in Stanley is destroyed by a fire.

August 21st, a secret conference commences at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington DC. Delegates from China, the UK, the USA and the USSR consider proposals for an international body to preserve peace and security.

Written by Junius

October 22, 2011 at 7:13 am

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